Through a tactical reverse, Grant was pleased with the operation as the railroad had been put out of commission leaving the Southside as the only track running into Petersburg. Dubbed the "Beefsteak Raid," his men escaped with 2, head of cattle. Returning, Grant mounted another operation in later September intending to strike at both ends of Lee's position.
Though he had some initial success, he was soon contained by the Confederates. In an effort to relieve pressure north of the James, Lee attacked the Union positions there on October 7.
City Under Siege: Richmond in the Civil War
The resulting Battle of Darbytown and New Market Roads saw his men repulsed forcing him to fall back. Continuing his trend of striking both flanks simultaneously, Grant sent Butler forward again on October At the other end of the line, Hancock moved west with a mixed force in an attempt to cut the Boydton Plank Road.
Though his men gained the road on October 27, subsequent Confederate counterattacks forced him to fall back. As a result, the road remained open for Lee throughout the winter Map. With the setback at Boydton Plank Road, fighting began to quiet as winter approached. The re-election of President Abraham Lincoln in November ensured that the war would be prosecuted to the end. On February 5, , offensive operations resumed with Brigadier General David Gregg's cavalry division moving out to strike Confederate supply trains on the Boydton Plank Road.
To protect the raid, Warren's corps crossed Hatcher's Run and established a blocking position on the Vaughan Road with elements of II Corps in support. Here they repulsed a Confederate attack late in the day. Following Gregg's return the following day, Warren pushed up the road and was assaulted near Dabney's Mill. Though his advance was halted, Warren succeeded in further extending the Union line to Hatcher's Run. By early March , over eight months in the trenches around Petersburg had begun to wreck Lee's army.
Plagued by disease, desertion, and a chronic lack of supplies, his force had dropped to around 50, Already outnumbered 2. Gordon to plan an attack on the Union lines with the goal of reaching Grant's headquarters area at City Point. Gordon began preparations and at AM on March 25, the lead elements began moving against Fort Stedman in the northern part of the Union line.
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Striking hard, they overwhelmed the defenders and soon had taken Fort Stedman as well as several nearby batteries opening a foot breach in the Union position. Hartranft's division to seal the gap. In tight fighting, Hartranft's men succeeded in isolating Gordon's attack by AM.
Supported by a vast number of Union guns, they counterattacked and drove the Confederates back to their own lines. Suffering around 4, casualties, the failure of the Confederate effort at Fort Stedman effectively doomed Lee's ability to hold the city.
City under siege: Richmond in the Civil War by Mike Wright (Paperback /
Sensing Lee was weak, Grant ordered the newly returned Sheridan to attempt a move around the Confederate right flank to the west of Petersburg. To counter this move, Lee dispatched 9, men under Major General George Pickett to defend the vital crossroads of Five Forks and the Southside Railroad, with orders to hold them "at all hazards. After some initial confusion, Sheridan's men routed the Confederates at the Battle of Five Forks , inflicting 2, casualties.
Pickett, who was away at a shad bake when the fighting started, was relieved of his command by Lee. With the Southside Railroad cut, Lee lost his best line of retreat.
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The following morning, seeing no other options, Lee informed President Jefferson Davis that both Petersburg and Richmond must be evacuated Map. This coincided with Grant ordering a massive offensive against the majority of the Confederate lines. In bitter fighting, they overwhelmed the defenders and held on against strong counterattacks by Gordon's men.
Advancing, Gibbon's men fought a protracted battle for Forts Gregg and Whitworth. Though they captured both, the delay allowed Lieutenant General James Longstreet to bring troops down from Richmond. The men were hungry and exhausted and the starving draft horses were too weak to pull the guns and supply wagons.
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Union forces were in close pursuit and were moving up to cut off their retreat. Surrounded and outnumbered, they surrendered. It was not the end of the war, but it was the end of all hope for the Confederacy. The operations at Petersburg covered roughly square miles. Including the defensive lines around Richmond and at Bermuda Hundred the fortifications stretched 37 miles.
General Grant launched nine distinct offensives at Petersburg, usually striking simultaneously north and south of the James River. Five railroads connected Petersburg with points south and west in the Confederacy. By the end of only one railroad was still open, the South Side Railroad. On June 18, the First Maine Heavy Artillery sustained the largest regimental loss of the civil war, losing men in ten minutes. After Pennsylvania coal miners dug a foot tunnel, on July 30, 8, pounds of powder were set off, killing South Carolinians and forming The Crater.
The treaty established the 49th parallel from the Rocky Mountains to the Strait of Georgia as the boundary Flipper, who was never spoken to by a white cadet during his four years at West Point, was On this day in , Paul Blobel, an SS colonel, is given the assignment of coordinating the destruction of the evidence of the grossest of Nazi atrocities, the systematic extermination of European Jews.
As the summer of approached, Allied forces had begun making cracks in Johnson, informs those in attendance that President Johnson has decided to postpone submitting a resolution to Congress asking for authority to wage war.
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The situation Sign up now to learn about This Day in History straight from your inbox. On this day in , George Washington, who would one day become the first American president, accepts an assignment to lead the Continental Army. On this day, poet Dante Alighieri becomes one of six priors of Florence, active in governing the city.
He will write his great work, The The riverboat-style steamer General Slocum was built in and used The failure of the plan to gain acceptance resulted in a dangerous nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. In August
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