Pain: A Cultural History

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On the one hand, they are attempting to determine the neurophysiological foundations behind cultural production and aesthetic perception through the use of imaging technology, such as in the field of neuroaesthetics S. As a consequence, a methodological gap opens up between different disciplinary explanatory models: between neuronal activity, subjective experience, and culturally preset forms of expression. With these issues in mind, the project builds on parallel sets of interests.

It investigates the development of neuro-psychoanalysis as a discipline and participates in an international network that facilitates an ongoing dialogue between the humanities, cultural science, and neuroscience. Since , the project has begun to focus on the example of pain as a field study that we can extrapolate in order to explain more generally the epistemological conditions and historical-scientific stakes that have both allowed for and hindered a productive exchange between disciplines. The project is actively engaged in shaping neuro-psychoanalysis — in both theory and practice — as it attempts to observe and bridge, if not close, existing methodological and epistemological gaps through dialogue, exchange, and the integration of different bodies of knowledge.

In conjunction with these efforts, the research project further asks what contributions philological, cultural-scientific, and psychological approaches can make to help bridge these gaps — each with its own specific area of expertise, for example, in the analysis of texts, language, gestures, imagery, and other forms of expression. To this end, the research and collaborations that began as part of the ZfL Project Freud and the Sciences — , will continue to inform our current work, including, among others, our collaborations with the Sigmund-Freud-Institute in Frankfurt and the International Neuropsychoanalysis Society.

The dialogue has several focal points. It also explores the implicit knowledge that informs research practices and therapy. Another special focus looks at the relationship between data collection practices in the humanities versus the natural sciences. The tension between the epistemes of interpretation versus measurement is understood as constitutive of neuro-psychoanalytical undertakings. At the symposium on empathy, Empathy.

Vischer, R. Use the lead layout guide to ensure the section follows Wikipedia's norms and to be inclusive of all essential details. Main article: Gate control theory. Opium a History. Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Pain: History and present status. American Journal of Psychology. July ;— Models of Pain Perception. Elsevier Health, Pain: psychological perspectives.

creation of pain

Mahwah, N. J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers; The management of pain. History of pain concepts and therapies. Idea of a new anatomy of the brain; submitted for the observation of his friends. In: Cranefield PF. New York: Futura; Bonica's management of pain. Intellectual milestones in our understanding and treatment of pain.

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The puzzle of pain. New York: Basic Books; Cutaneous sensory spots and the "law of specific nerve energies": history and development of ideas. Brain Research Bulletin.

Project Gutenberg text. Origins of neuroscience: a history of explorations into brain function. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. Pain: Historical Perspectives. Principles and practice of pain medicine. Pain mechanisms: a new theory. Psychology of pain.

New York: Wiley; International Association for the Study of Pain, 14 July Categories : Pain. Hidden categories: Suspected copyright infringements without a source from December Articles needing additional references from December All articles needing additional references Wikipedia introduction cleanup from December All pages needing cleanup Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from December All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify Articles with multiple maintenance issues. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

This is, of course, impossible to prove or disprove as we cannot obtain direct evidence linking pain perception with neuronal excitability in either experimental animals or patients. However, pharmacological evidence from studies of the actions of substance P suggests that such correlation may not be warranted Hill, Many animal studies have shown that Substance P antagonists or genetic deletion of the receptor for substance P [Neurokinin-1 NK1 receptor] reduce or abolish central sensitization as expressed by increased excitability of CNS nociceptive pathways and reflexes together with a loss of pain behavior in animal models.

Yet, several clinical trials in a variety of acute and chronic pain conditions failed to demonstrate significant analgesic properties of NK1 receptor antagonists Hill, , calling into question the usefulness of animal models of central sensitization as predictors of analgesic activity in chronic pain.

Central sensitization is a useful shorthand to describe transient increases in excitability in the CNS following—and maintained by—excitation of peripheral nociceptors. This process may be necessary to start a chronic pain state, but it is not sufficient to maintain it. It is surprising that relatively little is known about the central mechanism of hyperalgesia compared to the insights we have about peripheral mechanisms.

The Theatre of Pain

Synaptic plasticity involving glutamate receptors in the spinal cord has been frequently invoked as a mechanism, although how contralateral pain arises is less certain. This must involve some CNS events to explain the precise localization of the pain on the opposite limb. Nonetheless, peripheral input does seem to be essential for chronic pain when even phantom limb pain and neuropathic pain can both be reversed by lidocaine applied to sensory neurons or ganglia Haroutounian et al. Pain is an essential element of human life and has always occupied a central role in social traditions and behaviors.

However, the specific framework of a society and its rules and beliefs are different between cultures, and although pain, as a societal factor, is present in them all, the influence on individual behaviors is also different. Historically, Western societies have been influenced by the Judeo—Christian view of the world, based on the teachings of the Bible.

From this starting point, Western societies regard pain as a test of character, an inevitable aspect of our lives that will constantly remind us of our failures. Being a punishment, it is also proportional to the crime; hence, there is the feeling that diseases are more painful the more we have sinned. The whole interpretation of pain rests on feelings of guilt, punishment, retribution, and redemption, the very essence of Judeo—Christian tradition.

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There are many examples throughout the Bible of pain as a retribution for sin. This link between religion and pain is more acutely visible among Christians, focused on the painful death of Christ, nailed to a cross, an instrument of torture that became the universal icon of the religion. The Catholic version of Christianity goes even further, with profuse illustrations and images in churches and books of the blood and torture of Christ and of other saints, often reenacted in ceremonies, such as processions and other acts where penitents inflict various forms of pain on themselves. The Islamic tradition is somewhat similar, as it is also rooted in Judeo—Christian beliefs, though it has a few variations.

Also, pain is often seen as necessary to protect us from injury and, as such, a good feature of our lives. The Islamic tradition places more emphasis on pain as a purification process than as a punishment, but, as with the Christian tradition, the eventual reward can only be obtained after death Choong, ; Lovering, There are, of course, many other cultures and societies around the world with different views and approaches to pain.

Gaspare Tagliacozzi and Early Modern Surgery: Faces, Men, and Pain

Eastern societies are often influenced by Buddhist teachings that see human nature as imperfect, like the rest of worldly things, and pain as an inevitable aspect of human life. However, they think that pain can be conquered on Earth through self-improvement, like any other shortcomings of human nature, a process that may take more than just one lifetime, but that eventually would lead to the ability to control your pain Free, Some aspects of the social interpretation of pain are common through most cultures.

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These include considering pain as a test of character and praising the ability of an individual to endure pain as a positive aspect of personality. In the end, there is also a desire to eliminate or reduce pain on Earth, and all cultures have developed, from the beginning of time, methods directly or indirectly aimed at pain relief. Natural products with analgesic properties have been known since antiquity.

The two classes of drugs that are commonly still used and best understood are the opioids and anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin, initially derived from plant products like willow bark.

History of Pain Research - Oxford Handbooks

The use of opium to alleviate pain has been known since Egyptian times, and opium seeds have been found in Neolithic settlements. In the sixteenth century, Paracelsus described the use of laudanum, an opioid-based tincture, as an analgesic Rey, The unfortunate side effects of opioids were recognized through government action to ban the drugs from the period around Sadly, overprescription by unscrupulous producers and medical practitioners has led to an explosion of opioid-associated deaths in the United States in recent years, focusing attention on the massive problem of chronic pain, which is so poorly treated and understood.

The endogenous opioid peptides met and leu enkephalin, first discovered by Hughes in , as well as exogenous opioid drugs, act though GPCRs to mute neuronal activity through pertussis toxin—sensitive Gi-mediated pathways. They inhibit the actions of adenylate cyclase activated by inflammatory mediators and can diminish calcium currents and enhance inwardly rectifying potassium currents to inhibit neuronal activity Siuda et al. Interestingly, using the opioid antagonist naloxone, Levine et al. Another plant product that has potential as an analgesic is tetrahydrocannabinol, present in cannabis plants.

Similar to opium, cannabis not only has been used for its euphoric properties, but also has useful analgesic properties. There are synergies between opioid and cannabinoid action, suggesting that they modulate similar, but not identical, intracellular pathways. The arachidonic acid metabolite anandamide is the endogenous activator of CB receptors discovered in Devane et al. Anti-inflammatory drugs derived from willow bark were also known by Hippocrates in the fourth century bc. However, the first meaningful clinical trial was carried out by Stone; this was described in a paper presented to the Royal Society Stone, He used willow tree extract, which tasted as bitter as the Peruvian bark that was used to treat malarial fevers, and found that it was effective in 50 subjects.

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