Under an Elsevier user license. Abstract Every tenth patient with a cardiac pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implanted is expected to have at least one lead problem in his lifetime. Keywords Lead failure. Recommended articles Citing articles 0. Published by Elsevier Ltd. New materials and more recycling, along with simply avoiding unnecessary uses of the stuff, are the long-term solutions to the plastic waste problem. But the fastest way to make a big difference, Siegler says, is low tech.
Siegler has proposed a worldwide tax of a penny on every pound of plastic resin manufactured. The tax would raise roughly six billion dollars a year that could be used to finance garbage collection systems in developing nations. The idea never caught on. In the fall of , though, a group of scientists revived the concept of a global fund. The group called for an international agreement patterned after the Paris climate accord. At the Nairobi meeting in December, nations, including the U. Planet or Plastic? The miracle material has made modern life possible.
Read Caption. Just after dawn in Kalyan, on the outskirts of Mumbai, India, trash pickers looking for plastics begin their daily rounds at the dump, joined by a flock of birds. In the distance, garbage trucks rolling in from the megacity traverse a garbage valley. The woman carrying the red cloth lives at the landfill. By Laura Parker. Photographs by Randy Olson. This story is part of Planet or Plastic? Learn what you can do to reduce your own single-use plastics , and take your pledge.
Read this story and more in the June issue of National Geographic magazine. After sheets of clear plastic trash have been washed in the Buriganga River, in Dhaka, Bangladesh, Noorjahan spreads them out to dry, turning them regularly— while also tending to her son, Momo. The plastic will eventually be sold to a recycler. Less than a fifth of all plastic gets recycled globally. In the U. Plastic bottles choke the Cibeles fountain, outside city hall in central Madrid. An art collective called Luzinterruptus filled this and two other Madrid fountains with 60, discarded bottles last fall as a way of calling attention to the environmental impact of disposable plastics.
To ride currents, seahorses clutch drifting seagrass or other natural debris. A lifetime of plastic. The first plastics made from fossil fuels are just over a century old.
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They came into widespread use after World War II and are found today in everything from cars to medical devices to food packaging. Their useful lifetime varies. Once disposed of, they break down into smaller fragments that linger for centuries. Global plastic production by industry. Building and construction. Industrial machinery. Consumer products.
Less than six months. The largest market for plastics today is for packaging materials. That trash now accounts for nearly half of all plastic waste generated globally; most of it never gets recycled or incinerated. Growth in Asia. As the economies in Asia grow, so does demand for consumer products—and plastics.
Legacy of World War II. Shortages of natural materials during the war led to a search for synthetic alternatives—and to an exponential surge in plastic production that continues today. Shortages of natural materials during the war led to a search for synthetic alterna- tives—and to an expo- nential surge in plastic production that continues today. But how did the world become so dependent on it in the first place?
Durable chains. Plastics are polymers: Long-chain molecules made of repeating links, or monomers. The polymer here is PET, a type of polyester, the stuff of bottles and clothes. Simple links. The monomers that are synthesized into plastics are usually derived from fossil fuels such as crude oil and natural gas. Ethylene glycol. Dimethyl terephthalate.t2.swirlonthru.com/11885.php
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Chemical reactions. Heat, pressure, and catalysts drive reactions that link the monomers. Polymer chain. Polyethylene terephthalate PET. End products. PET is one of the most widely used polymers.
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Methanol, a by-product of PET synthesis, is typically incinerated. Under a bridge on a branch of the Buriganga River in Bangladesh, a family removes labels from plastic bottles, sorting green from clear ones to sell to a scrap dealer. Trucks full of plastic bottles pull into a recycling facility in Valenzuela, Philippines.
The bottles were plucked from the streets of metropolitan Manila by waste pickers, who sell them to scrap dealers, who bring them here. The plastic bottles and caps will be shredded, sold up the recycling chain, and exported. The challenge of recycling. Easy Manageable.
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Fred Feldman, the leading proponent of Attitudinal Hedonism, argues that the sensation of pleasure only has instrumental value — it only brings about value if you also have a positive psychological stance toward that sensation. In addition to his basic Intrinsic Attitudinal Hedonism, which is a form of Quantitative Hedonism, Feldman has also developed many variants that are types of Qualitative Hedonism.
For example, Desert-Adjusted Intrinsic Attitudinal Hedonism, which reduces the intrinsic value a pro-attitude has for our well-being based on the quality of deservedness that is, on the extent to which the particular object deserves a pro-attitude or not. For example, Desert-Adjusted Intrinsic Attitudinal Hedonism might stipulate that sensations of pleasure arising from adulterous behavior do not deserve approval, and so assign them no value.
Defining pleasure as a pro-attitude, while maintaining that all sensations of pleasure have no intrinsic value, makes Attitudinal Hedonism less obviously hedonistic as the versions that define pleasure as a sensation.
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Indeed, defining pleasure as a pro-attitude runs the risk of creating a preference satisfaction account of well-being because being pleased about something without feeling any pleasure seems hard to distinguish from having a preference for that thing. The most common argument against Prudential Hedonism is that pleasure is not the only thing that intrinsically contributes to well-being. Living in reality, finding meaning in life, producing noteworthy achievements, building and maintaining friendships, achieving perfection in certain domains, and living in accordance with religious or moral laws are just some of the other things thought to intrinsically add value to our lives.
When presented with these apparently valuable aspects of life, Hedonists usually attempt to explain their apparent value in terms of pleasure. A Hedonist would argue, for example, that friendship is not valuable in and of itself, rather it is valuable to the extent that it brings us pleasure. Furthermore, to answer why we might help a friend even when it harms us, a Hedonist will argue that the prospect of future pleasure from receiving reciprocal favors from our friend, rather than the value of friendship itself, should motivate us to help in this way.
Those who object to Prudential Hedonism on the grounds that pleasure is not the only source of intrinsic value use two main strategies. In the first strategy, objectors make arguments that some specific value cannot be reduced to pleasure. In the second strategy, objectors cite very long lists of apparently intrinsically valuable aspects of life and then challenge hedonists with the prolonged and arduous task of trying to explain how the value of all of them can be explained solely by reference to pleasure and the avoidance of pain. This second strategy gives good reason to be a pluralist about value because the odds seem to be against any monistic theory of value, such as Prudential Hedonism.
The first strategy, however, has the ability to show that Prudential Hedonism is false, rather than being just unlikely to be the best theory of well-being. This argument has proven to be so convincing that nearly every single book on ethics that discusses hedonism rejects it using only this argument or this one and one other.
In the thought experiment, Nozick asks us to imagine that we have the choice of plugging in to a fantastic machine that flawlessly provides an amazing mix of experiences. Importantly, this machine can provide these experiences in a way that, once plugged in to the machine, no one can tell that their experiences are not real.
Disregarding considerations about responsibilities to others and the problems that would arise if everyone plugged in, would you plug in to the machine for life?
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